Intercontinental Alliance of Women´s Networks in Law and Development
  • Fostering feminist political- legal actions and just development across Latin America, Africa and the Asia Pacific regions
  • Fostering feminist political- legal actions and just development across Latin America, Africa and the Asia Pacific regions
  • Fostering feminist political- legal actions and just development across Latin America, Africa and the Asia Pacific regions


    Beyond Growth: 4 Demands for Just & Sustainable Development The global model of evelopment is not working for rural, indigenous, urban poor and migrant women of Asia Pacific. Women and girls’ continue to face discrimination and inequality in access to education, nutrition and health services, sexual and reproductive health services, decision-making, access to and control over information and communication, land and other productive resources, thereby limiting their opportunities for decent work, life and security and full participation in public life.

    The world is experiencing unprecedented, multiple, interrelated crises in economy, energy, food, environment, climate and deepening poverty. Women, particularly marginalised women of Asia Pacific, experience those crises most acutely. Unregulated growth models have proven to be environmentally disastrous – promoting unsustainable resource extraction, large scale land clearing and agro-business and fuelling global warming. The model has particularly failed rural, indigenous and migrant women who bare the brunt of climate disasters, are continually loosing access to and control over land and resources, and remain amongst the most economically marginalised.

    The development framework that has dominated approaches for the past 30 years, lead by international financial institutions and wealthy nations, has stimulated economic growth by de-regulating government intervention, privatising public assets and encouraging foreign direct investment. It has assumed the ‘trickle down’ impact of wealth generation, yet it is increasingly evident that this work has failed to eradicate poverty and has instead magnified inequalities and caused human rights violations. As the MDGs come under review and a re-visioning of development becomes possible, Women need a new development model; a model that aims to reduce wealth, power and resource inequalities between countries, between rich and poor and between men and women. Development must be focused on fostering sustainable communities, sustainable lives and sustainable environments for all.

    APWLD is campaigning for four goals to be included in a new development framework. We believe that the framework needs to be driven by the needs and solutions of those who should be the intended beneficiaries: women and men of the global south. Reducing inequalities should be an overarching goal.

    1. Access and control over land and resources
    2. Decent Work and Living Wage
    3. Peace and Justice
    4. Voice

  • Cladem


    The observance of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) and the Additional Protocol to the American Convention on Human Rights on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (Protocol of San Salvador)  is conditioned by the current economic system , the development model  and by the patriarchal system.

    While Article 3 of the ICESCR and articles 3, 6 and 9 of the Protocol of San Salvador establish the obligation of the States to ensure equal rights of men and women to get full access to health, education, employment, water, housing, food and social security, despite these commitments, in Latin America and the Caribbean  inequality, poverty and social exclusion continue to exist.

    In this context, CLADEM monitors the implementation of the ICESCR in Latin America and the Caribbean through reporting to different monitors shadows committees of the United Nations, develop national and regional assessments, conduct campaigns, organize  training and disseminate information about the situation and the obstacles  for women  to fulfill  ESCR.

    This work has enabled the network to identify   the existing gaps:

    The lack of proper knowledge about the contribution of unpaid work to the economy of the countries. Domestic work, care and reproductive assistance remain in women’s hands, limiting opportunities for political and economic participation.

    The provision of non-sexist education .This type of education has not been incorporated as part of the educational systems in the region, their curriculum content or in materials in order to combat discriminatory and sexist stereotypes to eradicate violence against women.

    Access to decent work. Women are the ones who have access to jobs with lower pay, and with precarious and informal conditions. The prevalence of  discriminatory traditional cultural patterns  keep women in a position of employment discrimination, double shifts and workdays jobs with fewer hours which directly affects the wages they get.

    Social security and retirement. Women prevail in precarious and informal jobs that do not guarantee access to social security and pensions, a fact  which directly impacts on the quality of life of women.

    Access to sexual and reproductive health services, decreasing numbers of maternal deaths, abortions that endanger the lives of women, the implementation of  sexual  education and access to contraceptives, continue to be an outstanding debt of all Latin American and Caribbean States.

    Access to property and land. Despite the role of women in agriculture, their economic access to property and land is limited by gender discrimination in the process of inheritance, inequality in the process of land distribution and their limited access to purchase of property.

    The persecution of human rights defenders who defend access to water , natural resources, territory and communities when they are  threatened by this particular type of industry.

    These gaps represent outstanding debts and challenges for women to be taken by the States in compliance with the agreement of the Rio +20 Conference to build upa set of sustainable development goals (SDGs ), in agreement with  the evaluation that is being made on  the Millennium Development Goals,  in line with the new development agenda to be implemented post 2015.

    Both ODS and the Post 2015 Development Agenda should include gender equality as a goal, incorporating it to their targets and indicators to measure progress in mainstreaming gender. It is also imperative that these goals and schedules are guided by the obligations and jurisprudence developed for the fulfillment of ESCR.


    — CLADEM, “Diagnóstico de los derechos económicos sociales y culturales de las mujeres en la región”, documento presentado en la XXXV Asamblea General de la OEA, julio 2005.

    — Núñez Elba, “Igualdad de género en el goce de los DESC”, CLADEM, octubre 2005.

    — Núñez Elba (coordinación). Sistematización de estudios nacionales sobre derechos habitacionales y DESC de las mujeres , CLADEM, octubre 2008.

    — Vázquez Roxana (coordinación). La globalización al debate. Reflexiones feministas , CLADEM, diciembre 2010.

    — Soledispa Toro Azucena y Sánchez Pinto Silvana. DESCA. Guía para la identificación, selección y judicialización de casos de violación de derechos económicos, sociales, culturales y ambientales de las mujeres a nivel nacional , CLADEM, diciembre 2011.

    — Romero Bidegaray Inés. Garantía y realización del derecho a la educación en América Latina: los avances en la igualdad en el goce y ejercicio del derecho de las mujeres a la educación. Balance regional, CLADEM, diciembre 2011.


    — Observación general No. 16 “La igualdad de derechos del hombre y la mujer al disfrute de los derechos económicos, sociales y culturales”, Comité DESC, 2005.

    — Observación general No.13 “Igual remuneración por trabajo de igual valor”, Comité CEDAW, 1989.

    — Observación general No. 16 “Mujeres que trabajan sin remuneración en empresas familiares rurales y urbanas”, Comité CEDAW, 1991.

    — Observación general No. 17 “Medición y cuantificación del trabajo doméstico no remunerado de la mujer y su reconocimiento en el producto nacional bruto”, Comité CEDAW, 1991.

    — Observación general No. 24 “La mujer y la salud”, Comité CEDAW, 1999.

    — Observación general No. 27 “Sobre las mujeres de edad y la protección de sus derechos humanos”, Comité CEDAW, 2010.

    — “Los principios de Montreal: el derecho de la mujer al goce equitativo de los Derechos Económicos Sociales y Culturales”, Montreal, Quebec, 7 al 10 de diciembre de 2010.